EBVM.vet: Evidence Quality

Negative Evidence

EBVM Grade 0

  • PK Data: Unavailable
  • SPC Data: No
  • Authorized Use: No (Unlikely)
  • Journal Data: Limited (ineffective, or toxicity issues: e.g., an adverse or inappropriate effect.)
  • Proceedings, Textbooks, CPD: Some/Limited; General anecdotal; Possibly supporting and adverse outcome
  • SARs: Possible or likely adverse effect; Possibly significant SAR data.
  • Extrapolation: Some data is merely extrapolated from comparable species and conditions
  • Efficacy:  Limited or no clear evidence of efficacy for the indication concerned.

Very-Low-Quality/Anecdotal Evidence

EBVM Grade 1

  • PK Data: Unavailable or limited in the species of concern
  • SPC Data: No
  • Authorized Use: No (Unlikely; No; Not in the UK and the USA)
  • Journal Data: Limited  (e.g. No significant data/Limited data located/may not be positive)
  • Proceedings, Textbooks, CPD: Some/Limited; General anecdotal; e.g. personal communication or conference proceedings data;
  • SARs: Possible adverse effect or Limited data
  • Extrapolation: Some data is often extrapolated from comparable species and conditions
  • Efficacy: Limited or anecdotal evidence of efficacy for the indication concerned.

 Low-Quality Evidence

EBVM Grade 2

  • PK Data: Unavailable or limited in the species of concern
  • SPC Data: No
  • Authorization: Probably not; Probably not in either the UK and the USA
  • Journal Data: Some/Limited  e.g. one or two case reports or review articles
  • Proceedings, Textbooks, CPD: Some/Limited; General anecdotal; e.g. Conference proceedings, Textbook Review Material  or Personal Communication
  • SARs: Limited data regarding adverse effect at proposed dose, route, and indication
  • Extrapolation: Some data may be extrapolated from comparable species and conditions
  • Efficacy: Some reports will suggest efficacy; e.g. anecdotal evidence of efficacy for the indication concerned.

Moderate-Quality Evidence

EBVM Grade 3

  • PK Data: Some Available.
  • SPC data: Maybe; Animal/ Human SPC
  • Authorization: Maybe; Possibly either the UK or the USA, (or possibly both), but possibly not for the specific indication, administration route or species
  • Journal Data: Significant positive data; Possible RDBPC
  • Proceedings, Textbooks, CPD: Significant volume
  • Extrapolation: Little evidence will rely upon interspecies extrapolation
  • SARs: Limited data regarding adverse effect at proposed dose, route, and indication
  • Efficacy: Some reports will suggest efficacy; e.g. controlled studies with positive evidence of efficacy for the indication concerned.

High-Quality Evidence

EBVM Grade 4

  • PK Data: Available (Generally).
  • SPC data: Yes
  • Authorization: Yes; either the UK or the USA, (or possibly both)
  • Journal Data: Significant positive data; Possible RDBPC, Prospective controlled studies, Systematic reviews
  • Proceedings, Textbooks, CPD: Significant volume; Possible RDBPC.
  • Extrapolation: Not relevant
  • SARs: Limited data regarding adverse effect at proposed dose, route, and indication
  • Efficacy: Plentiful reports documenting efficacy; e.g. controlled studies with positive evidence of efficacy for the indication concerned.

Regulatory Considerations: Veterinary Medicines

Unauthorized Medicines

  • Depending upon the identification of suitable supporting evidence we have a rating of 0 to 3 rating for unauthorized medicine use. Where possible this relates to the species, indication, dose and administration route.  White (0), Grey (1), Red (2) Amber (3)

Authorized Medicines

  • Use of our Green (4) Rating 4 represents the use of an authorized drug, at an authorized dose being used for an authorized indication in at least one country covered. It may also include extrapolated unauthorized use where there is significant supporting PubMed Journal data. Data for authorized use is located from the FDA Animal Drugs website (USA) and the VMD website (UK)

The ratings are explained here and how a monograph is rated will change from time to time in response to community feedback.


External Database Reading and References


Pubmed literature


General Literature


EBVM System last updated: 13/10/2016 Stuart McArthur MRCVS